We are the Technology iN Training Laboratory, a lab of industrial/organizational psychologists dedicated to researching the Internet and related technologies as they can be used to improve both the study of work and work itself.

Too many technologies are being blindly adopted by organizations and educational institutions with little research to support those decisions. The mission of this lab is to sort the wheat from the chaff - to investigate how assessment and learning are affected by the use of new technologies and further, to refine those technologies to improve outcomes. We thus operate at the intersection of several fields - industrial/organizational psychology, human resources, organizational behavior, information systems, educational psychology, educational technology, instructional design, and many others.

Our current focus is on the use of technology to improve such processes and outcomes through the use of gamification, videogames, mobile devices, online social network sites, 3D virtual worlds (MUVEs), and other interactive web-based applications.

If you are considering adopting a new technology in your organization and would like us to assist you in evaluating its effectiveness, see this info or contact us directly.

Statistics Textbook Published!

Buy the bookInspired partly by my success at explaining How to Compute ICCs in SPSS on my blog, and partly because I think significance testing is usually not well-understood by most students in statistics courses, I wrote a statistics textbook entitled A Step-by-Step Introduction to Statistics for Business, published by SAGE. It's a concise, one-semester introduction to the topic based around a chapter-by-chapter exploration of how small business owners can solve practical problems with statistics. It's accompanied by click-by-click video demonstrations of all skills in both SPSS and Excel, tied closely to chapter contents, plus an online random dataset generator for learners to test their computational skills (and instructors to generate problem sets!). If you'd like to teach or learn about statistics in business, I strongly recommend it!

Upcoming Presentations and Publications

Bold indicates current or former student author and italics indicates faculty author.

Landers, R. N. & Behrend, T. S. (in press). An inconvenient truth: Arbitrary distinctions between organizations, Mechanical Turk, and other convenience samples. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (in press). An experiment on anonymity and multi-user virtual environments: Manipulating identity to increase learning from online collaborative discussion. International Journal of Games and Computer-Mediated Simulation.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (in press). Validation of the beneficial and harmful work-related social media behavioral taxonomies: Development of the Work-related Social Media Questionnaire (WSMQ). Social Science Computer Review.

Landers, R. N. & Landers, A. K. (in press). An empirical test of the theory of gamified instructional design: The effect of leaderboards on academic performance. Simulation & Gaming.

Landers, R. N., Bauer, K. N., Callan, R. C., & Armstrong, M. B. (in press).  Psychological theory and the gamification of learning.  In T. Reiners & L. Wood (Eds.), Gamification in Education and Business.  New York, NY: Springer.

Callan, R. C., Bauer, K. N., & Landers, R. N. (in press).  How to avoid the dark side of gamification: Ten business scenarios and their unintended consequences.  In T. Reiners & L. Wood (Eds.), Gamification in Education and Business.  New York, NY: Springer.

Armstrong, M. B. & Landers, R. N. (2015, April). Game-thinking in assessment: Applications of gamification and serious games. Symposium presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Armstrong, M. B. & Landers, R. N. (2015, April). Enhancing training outcomes with gamification. Poster presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Armstrong, M. B., Landers, R. N., & Collmus, A. B. (2015, April). Game-thinking in human resource management. Poster presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Aude, S. N., Brusso, R. C., Barnieu, J., Johnston, J. H., Landers, R. N., Mulvaney, R., & Zachary, W. (2015, April). I-Os as technologists: To start, press any key. Panel presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Bauer, K.B., Cavanaugh, K.J., & Cameron, H. C. (2015, April).  Pre-Training Predictors of Attrition from Voluntary Online Training.  Poster presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Cavanaugh, K. J., Landers, R. N. & Landers, A. K. (2015, April). Backchannel communication: Can text messaging improve traditional classroom learning?  Paper presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Ferrell, J., Abraham, J., Holland, B., Landers, R. N., Nejar, M., & Read, J. (2015, April). Critical discussions regarding mobile assessments: Can you hear us now? Panel presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Major, D. A., Streets, V. N., Landers, R. N., Cigularov, K., & Hu, X. (2015, April). Building bridges in I/O via an undergraduate research apprentice program. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Philadelphia, PA.

Bauer, K. N., Speaks, S., Howard, W., Landers, R. N., & Cameron, H. (2014, August). The impact of environmental factors on transfer of training over time.  Paper presented at the Academy of Management 2014 Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, PA.

Bauer, K. N., Callan, R. C., Cavanaugh, K. J. & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). The application of goal-setting theory to gamification. Poster presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Bauer, K. N. & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). The examination of different predictors of transfer use versus effectiveness. Poster presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Callan, R. C., Bauer, K. N., Armstrong, M. B. & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). Gamification in psychology: A review of theory and potential pitfalls. Poster presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Cavanaugh, K. J., Callan, R. C., & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). Comparison of MTurk Workers and undergraduates in online training study. In B. H. Gaddis & C. A. Scherbaum (Chairs), A Critical Review of Mechanical Turk as a Research Tool. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Cavanaugh, K. C. & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). Incremental validity of social media ratings to predict job performance. In R. N. Landers & G. B. Schmidt (Chairs), Social media in selection: Validity, applicant reactions, and legality. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Cavanaugh, K. J. & Landers, R. N. (2014, May). Individual differences and the usage of learner control. Poster presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Fisher, S. L., Orvis, K. A., Weiss, H. M., Ford, M. T., Landers, R. N., Howardson, G. N., Karim, M. N. & Mullins, M. (2014, May). Beyond the subject pool: Creative sampling methods in I/O research. Panel presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Landers, R. N., Reddock, C. M., Cavanaugh, K. J. & Proaps, A. B. (2014, May). Talent assessment using mobile devices. In T. Kantrowitz & C. M. Reddock (Chairs), Shaping the future of mobile assessment: Research and practice update. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Landers, R. N. & Schmidt, G. B. (2014, May). Social media, a new predictor class: Remaining questions for selection. In R. N. Landers & G. B. Schmidt (Chairs), Social media in selection: Validity, applicant reactions, and legality. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Landers, R. N. & Schmidt, G. B. (2014, May). Social media in selection: Validity, applicant reactions, and legality. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Reddock, C. M. & Coughlin, C. R. (2014, May). Biodata item generation: Using cloning to generate multiple tests. In C. M. Reddock & A. R. Schwall (Chairs), New Developments in Biodata Research and Practice. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Reddock, C. M. & Schwall, A. R. (2014, May). New developments in biodata research and practice. Symposium presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Honolulu, HI.

Proaps, A. B., Landers, R. N., Reddock, C. M., Cavanaugh, K. C., & Kantrowitz, T. (2014, April). Mobile versus computer-based talent assessments: Implications of workload and usability. Poster presented at the 2014 ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Toronto, ON.

Landers, R. N. (2014, March). Improving courses and their end-of-semester evaluation Using mid-semester evaluations and online video responses. Invited talk for the ODU Provost's Conversations on Teaching and Learning, Norfolk, VA.

Recent Presentations and Publications

Schmidt, G. B. & Landers, R. N. (2013). Solving the replication problem in psychology requires much more than a website. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6, 305-309.

Landers, R. N. (2013, October). Using online mid-semester evaluations to improve courses and their end-of-semester evaluation. Invited talk for the 2013 annual conference of the Virginia Community Colleges Association, Norfolk, VA.

Landers, R. N. (2013, September). Serious games and simulation for the assessment of human capabilities. Invited talk for the National Research Council Committee on Measuring Human Capabilities, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

Landers, R. N. (2013, September). Gaming the curriculum. Invited speaker for the Institute for the Humanities Colloquium Series, Norfolk, VA.

Landers, R. N. & Goldberg, A. S. (2013). Online social media in the workplace: A conversation with employees. In M. D. Coovert & L. F. Thompson (Eds.), Psychology of Workplace Technology (pp. 284-306). New York, NY: Routledge Academic.

Brusso, R. C. & Orvis, K. A. (2013). The impeding role of initial unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance: Identifying underpinning processes and a solution. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1686-1694.

Landers, R. N. (2013). A step-by-step introduction to statistics for business. London: SAGE.

Landers, R. N. (2013, August). Assessment of online learning.  Invited talk for C. Osgood (PI) & A. Landers (Co-PI), Training Writing Fellows in the College of Sciences to Support W Courses, Norfolk, VA.

Bauer, K. N., Orvis, K. A., Ely, K., & Surface, E. A. (2013, May). Reexamining the construct of motivation in learning contexts: A meta-analytic path analysis. Poster to be presented at 25th Association for Psychological Science Annual Convention, Washington, DC.

Landers, R. N. (2013, May). Mid-semester student feedback online: Improving your course and evaluations. Invited talk for the Old Dominion University Faculty Summer Institute, Norfolk, VA.

Brusso, R. C., Paddock, A., & Hatfield, J. (2013, April). Gamification: A new approach to serious games in training. In M.A. Lodato (Chair), R.C. Brusso (Co-Chair), & R. Wisher (Discussant), I-O’s role in emerging training technologies. Symposium presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Landers, R. N. (2013, April). Gamification: A new approach to serious games in training. In M.A. Lodato (Chair), R.C. Brusso (Co-Chair), & R. Wisher (Discussant), I-O’s role in emerging training technologies. Symposium presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Major, D. A., Orvis, K. A., Bauer, K. N., Morganson, V. J., & Henson, J. M. (2013, April). Antecedents and consequences of voluntary professional development among STEM majors. Poster to be presented at the 28th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Houston, TX.

Landers, R. N. (2013, March). Online instruction in higher education and organizations: Catching up and moving forward. Invited talk for Syracuse University School of Information Studies, Syracuse, NY.

Landers, R. N. (2013, March). An online social network site with gamification to encourage student collaboration, learning, mentoring, and retention. In Social Media in the Classroom. Symposium presented at the Virginia Open and Digital Learning Resources Conference, Fredericksburg, VA.

Mahan, L., Morganson, V. J., & Bauer, K. N. (2013, February). The effects of positive marginality on women in STEM majors. Poster presented at the 5th Annual Undergraduate Research Symposium, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

Brusso, R. C., Orvis, K. A., Bauer, K. N., & Tekleab, A. G. (2012). Interaction among self-efficacy, goal orientation, and unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance. Military Psychology, 24, 1-18.

Bauer, K. N., Brusso, R. C., & Orvis, K. A. (2012). Using adaptive difficulty to optimize videogame-based training performance: The moderating role of personality. Military Psychology, 24, 148-165.

Brusso, R. C., Orvis, K. A., Bauer, K. N., & Tekleab, A. G. (2012). Interaction among self-efficacy, goal orientation, and unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance. Military Psychology, 24, 1-18.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C.. (2012). Training evaluation in virtual worlds: Development of a model. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 5(3), 1-20.

Biderman, M. D. & Reddock, C. M. (2012). The relationship of scale reliability and validity to respondent inconsistency. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 647-651.

Landers, R. N. & Sackett, P. R. (2012). Offsetting performance losses due to cheating in unproctored internet testing by increasing the applicant pool. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 20, 220-228.

Callan, R. C. & Landers, R. N. (2012). Learning theory. In M. R. Marvel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of New Venture Management (pp. 308-309). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Callan, R. C. & Landers, R. N. (2012). Social networks. In M. R. Marvel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of New Venture Management (pp. 423-425). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2012). Learning. In M. R. Marvel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of New Venture Management (pp. 305-308). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Landers, R. N. & Reddock, C. M. (2012). Psychological views. In M. R. Marvel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of New Venture Management (pp. 383-386). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Reddock, C. M. & Landers, R. N. (2012). Human resources. In M. R. Marvel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of New Venture Management (pp. 238-239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Mahan, L., Morganson, V. J., & Bauer, K. N. (2012, November). The effects of positive marginality on women in STEM majors. Poster presented at the 14th Annual Tidewater Student Research Poster Session, Newport News, VA.

Major, D. A., Orvis, K. A., Morganson, V. J., & Bauer, K. N. (2012, August). Integrating proactive personality into a SCCT model to predict professional development. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Callan, R. C. & Landers, R. N. (2012, April). Effects of experience and learning control on time and learning. In T. S. Behrend (Chair), R.N. Landers (Chair), & K. Kraiger (Discussant), Building a science of learner control in training: Current perspectives.  Symposium presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2012, April). Using social networking sites with gameification to support employee learning.  In G. Schmidt (Chair), R.N. Landers (Chair), & J. Stanton (Discussant), The impact of social media on work.  Symposium presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Landers, R. N., Reddock, C. M. & Mogan, T. (2012, April). Learner control: Update and extension of Kraiger and Jerden (2007). In T. S. Behrend (Chair), R.N. Landers (Chair), & K. Kraiger (Discussant), Building a science of learner control in training: Current perspectives.  Symposium presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Major, D. A., Orvis, K. A., Morganson, V. J. & Bauer, K. N. (2012, April). Testing a social cognitive career theory model of professional development. Poster presented at the 27th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Brink, C. D. & Landers, R. N.(2012, March). Gamification: More than just goal-setting. Paper presented at the 2012 conference of the Virginia Social Science Association, Norfolk, VA.

Landers, R. N. & Callan, R. C. (2011). The seriousness of casual games: The psychology of gameification in undergraduate education and employee training. In M. Ma, A. Oikonomou, & L. C. Jain (Eds.), Serious Games and Edutainment Applications (pp. 399-424). Surrey, UK: Springer.

Weathington, B. L. & Reddock, C. M. (2011). Equity sensitivity in "fringe" benefit value and satisfaction. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 13, 44-59.

Landers, R. N., Reddock, C. M., Callan, R. C. & Cavanaugh, K. J. (2011, October). The evolving role of the Internet for employees and students. Symposium presented at the Fall 2011 conference of the Virginia Psychological Association.

Landers, R. N. (2011, August). Researching and teaching a Second Life: A tutorial on virtual worlds.  Workshop presented at the 2011 annual conference of the Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior division, San Antonio, TX.

Barton, H., Landers, R. N., Lynch, J. D., Schmidt, G. B., & Teahen, J. A. (2011, August). The future of management and social media. Panel presented at the 2011 annual conference of the Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior division, San Antonio, TX.

Landers, R. N. (2011, May). Ready to MUVE: Exploring the potential of 3D virtual worlds in recruitment, selection, training, and virtual teamwork.  Invited talk for the Human Resources Research Organization [HumRRO].

Reddock, C. M., Biderman, M. D., & Nguyen, N. T. (2011). The relationship of reliability and validity of personality tests to frame-of-reference instructions and within-person inconsistency. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19, 119-131.

Johnson, R. C. & Landers, R. N. (2011, April). Designing training with discussion in virtual worlds: A longitudinal investigation. In R.N. Landers (Chair), T. Behrend (Chair) & J.M. Stanton (Discussant), Empirical evidence for emerging technology: MUVEs/Virtual worlds in HR. Symposium presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Landers, R. N. (2011, April). Multi-user virtual environments and virtual worlds: Definitions, demonstration and history. In R.N. Landers (Chair), T. Behrend (Chair) & J. Stanton (Discussant), Empirical evidence for emerging technology: MUVEs/Virtual worlds in HR. Symposium presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Johnson, R. C., Leffler, G. P.,  & Landers, R. N. (2011, April). Predicting dishonest online test taking behavior in unproctored internet-based testing. Poster presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Reddock, C. M. & Landers, R. N. (2011, April). Personality and synchronicity interaction predicts training performance in online discussion. Poster presented at the 26th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL.

Cavanaugh, K. J. & Landers, R. N. (2011, March). Predicting job success from Facebook profiles. Paper presented at the 2011 annual conference of the Virginia Social Science Association, Norfolk, VA.

Landers, R. N., Sackett, P. R., & Tuzinski, K. A. (2011). Retesting after initial failure, coaching rumors, and warnings against faking in online personality measures for selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 202-210.

Schmidt, G.B. & Landers, R.N. (2010). Strengthening shared identity in I/O psychology through online social networks. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3, 286-288.

Landers, R. N. (2010, October). A hands-on introduction to social media. Workshop presented at the Fall 2010 conference of the Virginia Psychological Association.

Landers, R.N. & Schmidt, G.B. (2010, August). Making and managing connections to colleagues, employees and students through online social networks. Workshop presented at the 2010 annual conference of the Academy of Management, Organizational Behavior divison, Montreal, Canada.

Schmidt, G.B., Kane, G.C., Landers, R.N., Lynch, J.D., Teahen, J.A., & VanDervort. (2010, August). Making management knowledge connections through online social networking sites. Panel presented at the 2010 annual conference of the Academy of Management, Organizational Communication and Information Systems division.

Schmidt, G. B. & Landers, R. N. (2010, August). Online social media in our professions and professional lives. Caucus presented at the 2010 annual conference of the Academy of Management, Montreal, Canada.

Landers, R.N. (2010, April). Social media is coming to psychology: What should we do now?! Invited talk for the Virginia Psychological Association.

Johnson, R.C. & Landers, R. N. (2010, March). Anonymity and agency in discussion. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Virginia Social Science Association.

Landers, R.N. (2010, March). Integrating technology into training and education: What we know and what we wish we knew. Invited talk for the ODU College of Business and Public Administration Dean's Seminar Series.